理财频道互联网理财新闻洋视角:这10大原因导致你发不了大财

洋视角:这10大原因导致你发不了大财

编辑:殷素素 来源:融360编译 日期:2015-08-12

摘要:

及时了解并避免理财误区,方可在发财致富的路上走得更远!

  

 

        第一、过于看重历史收益

 

  参考历史收益选择当前投资是极其危险的,因为效益差的投资可能会出现反弹,而效益好的投资也可能会一落千丈。如市场稳健,那么此前收益最佳的投资,实则风险性最高。

 

  第二、过度投资股市

 

  较之保守的投资组合,高风险投资组合很好地诠释了什么叫做“飞的越高跌的越重”。在针对个人投资组合的调查中发现,投资者极少投资债券、一些小型公司或跨国公司,而是对一些大型公司情有独钟,有时甚至会出现孤注一掷的情形。 

 

  第三、高价买低价出

 

 

  之所以会出现高价买低价出这种情况,其原因在于投资者过度看重股票的历史收益。不同于“低价买高价出”这一基本原理,恐惧和贪婪等不良情绪会导致投资者错失最佳买卖时机。

 

  第四、眼界狭窄

 

 

  公司的产品虽好,但并非意味着该公司是个好的投资选择,反之亦然。作为一个投资者,想对投资选择多些了解乃人之常情,但如若眼界狭窄,那么投资组合出现片面性也在所难免。

 

  第五、投保额度不当

 

  大多数人对规模小、概率高的损失事件投保超额,而对于概率低的灾难性损失事件则投保过低,延长消费性电子产品的保修期和为智能手机投保投均是常见的投保超额现象。反之,对于一些低概率的灾难性事件诸如英年早逝、出现导致丧失劳动能力的残疾、洪水、以及地震却出现投保过低的情形。

 

  第六、未制定遗产计划

 

 

  虽然考虑到自己的死已足够心塞,但还要提前妥善安置好自己的身后事,这也算是对亲人做的最后一件事吧。经和无名一代(指代美国70后)接触发现,其死亡率还是较低的。然而,一旦出现英年早逝,如没有保险证据,其他人往往无法继承其财产。鉴于此,提前制定好遗产计划较为明智,可谓是未雨绸缪。

 

  第七、 购买公司的人身保险

 

  尽管老板会为你购买人身保险,但一旦你年近40中旬,这部分费用就会出现大幅上涨。另外,哪怕你健康状况极佳,你也享受不到什么优惠。尽管因医务核保流程不可省,个人购买人身保险会耗费一些时间和精力,但其益处在于投保人不仅可享受长达30年的固定保险政策,而且不受工作限制。

 

  第八、不计算税收

 

 

  稍加对社保/医保税、收入税、财产税以及营业税进行一下研究,便不难发现为何税收会在大多数美国人的日常开销单上位居第一。如果你真想发财致富,那么税收绝对是需要解决的头号问题。

 

  第九、不记录开销

 

  虽然你不必清楚钱包里每一分钱的来龙去脉,但还是应对收入去向有个大致了解。此外,你还应该知晓如若开销增加,可削减哪一部分消费用以弥补这个缺口。

 

  第十、目标不明确

 

 

  制定一个大体的目标不算难事,诸如“我想退休”、“我想供孩子念大学”等。但是,只有足够清晰的目标才拥有一种特别的力量,这种力量会促使你推迟享乐、避免盲目消费和专注长期回报。简言之,目标越明确越好。

 

  看了上文,感受如何?以上误区,你误入几个?如何避免走入这些误区?是时候好好想一想了!

 

  原文:

 

  The 10 Most Common Financial Planning Mistakes

 

  1. Too great a focus on past performance.

 

  It is incredibly dangerous to pick investments based only on prior returns, as what goes down tends to make a comeback and what has done exceedingly well falls back to earth. The things that have the best past performance are the riskiest investments when the market does well and the most conservative in cases where the market is doing poorly. As I write this, stocks have done well in 2013, the last twelve months and the last three years. Do you really believe that the things that have ‘worked’ during that time will continue to work when the stock market inevitably cools off?

 

  2. Too much risk in their investments typified by too much in stocks and highly concentrated positions.

 

  By taking more risk with a portfolio, all it means is that the highs will be higher and the lows will be lower than a more conservative portfolio. When I look at do-it-yourself stock portfolios, I rarely see any exposure to bonds, small U.S. companies, or international companies. The person is only invested in large U.S. companies. Frequently the portfolio will have large positions in just a handful of companies and then a haphazard collection of other things surrounding it.

 

  3. Buying high and selling low.

 

  This is a direct result of focusing on prior performance and taking on too much risk. Rather than focusing on fundamentals and buying low and selling high, emotions in the form of fear and greed kick in leading to buying and selling at the wrong time. Warren Buffett said it the best ‘be fearful when others are greedy and be greedy when other people are fearful.’

 

  4. Too great a focus on what they know.

 

  Famed Fidelity Magellan manager Peter Lynch made buying what you know famous in the 1980s and a result people thought that investing was just a matter of buying stock in companies whose products you knew and liked. What makes a good product doesn’t always make a good investment and vice versa. There is a balance in that as an investor, you want to know what you’re buying, but if you focus too narrowly your portfolio isn’t properly diversified.

 

  5. Improperly structuring insurance coverages.

 

  Most people over-insure small, frequent losses and underinsure infrequent catastrophic losses. This over insurance is most commonly evidenced by things such as setting auto and homeowners deductibles too low, buying extended warrantees on consumer electronics, and opting into things as insuring your smartphone. Conversely, infrequent yet catastrophic events such as premature death, disability that prevents you from working, floods, and earthquakes are underinsured. I’ll write more in depth about this later, but the general rule with insurance is to self-insure as much as you can, and plow those savings into having a good financial foundation so you can absorb the loss if and when it occurs. Buy the right amount of the right type of coverage and make sure you’re paying a fair price for it on things that you do choose to insure.

 

  6. Not having an estate plan.

 

  Yes, I get it – thinking of your own mortality sucks, but you still need to have things in place to take care your loved ones if something happens to you. In working with Generation X clients, there is low mortality, but when a premature death happens people usually don’t have the financial resources to replace their income without some sort of insurance. It’s better to have a plan in place and not need it than to need it and not have it. Also, I don’t recommend using do-it-yourself type programs or services to draft your estate documents. Most attorneys are very price competitive on basic estate planning documents and their experience is invaluable.

 

  7. Buying life insurance as an employee benefit.

 

  While it’s easy and cheap to take life insurance from your employer, this coverage typically goes up in price dramatically once you’re in your mid-40s, doesn’t give you a lower rate if you’re in above average health, and most importantly disappears when you leave your job. While it does take some effort to buy a policy on your own since you have to go through medical underwriting, the benefits are that you can lock in a rate for up to 30 years and have a policy that isn’t contingent on your job. Also, if you are in excellent health and a non-smoker it is possible to save money on the group policies as well.

 

  8. Not accounting for taxes.

 

  When you factor in Social Security/Medicare tax, income tax, property tax, and sales tax it’s easy to see why taxes are the biggest expenditure for most Americans. If you really want to make an impact on building wealth, make sure that you’re addressing the big things first!

 

  9. Not tracking your spending.

 

  There is a balance here – you don’t need to know how much you spend down to the last penny but you do need to have a rough idea of where your money is going and where you can cut some fat if the need arises. What I use personally and with clients is the First Step Cash Management System. What I like about First Step is that it doesn’t feel like a budget but it still provides parameters and a framework for making sure that your spending is in line with what you’re ultimately trying to accomplish with your life.

 

  10. Not being clear on your goals.

 

  It isn’t difficult to have vague goals such as “I want to retire” or “I want to pay for my children’s college education”. What truly give goals their special powers is having them be clear enough where they help you delay gratification, avoid dumb behaviors and focus on long term rewards. The more specific you can be on the goal the better. For example, on education goals you might focus on things like: Where do you want your children to go to college? Do you want to pay for any graduate degrees? When do you want this goal to happen? Also, write your goals down and have make yourself accountable to someone else for them being achieved!

 

  What do you think? What mistakes have you made? How did the mistake get corrected? What did it ultimately wind up costing you? Share your thoughts in the comments.

 

栏目介绍:“洋视角”是融360理财频道新开设的一个栏目,栏目会定期从国外投资理财网站择优挑选一些优秀的投资理财方面的观点文章进行提炼和编译。帮助国内投资者了解到国外投资者最新的动向和观点,以期对国内投资者的投资理财有借鉴意义。

 

 

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